A transistor is a semiconductor that can be used as a switch or an amplifier. As a basic introduction, we examine the bipolar junction transistor to switch an LED on and off using a control voltage. We also find out how to calculate the different resistor values to get the optimal working switch circuit.
Generic electronics theory for Eurorack synth DIY.
Diodes provide a one-way street for current flow. They’re often used to convert AC to DC, in clipping and clamping circuits, as circuit protection, voltage limiter, and voltage regulator. Some even emit light. Diodes come in lots of different shapes and sizes each with their own specific use.
Capacitors are little storage devices for electrical charge. They help to provide energy when needed, filter signals, decouple circuits, time in circuits, manipulate control voltage, prevent noise in signals and more. Besides that, they block DC and allow the flow of AC in a circuit.
The operational amplifier is one of the most versatile and useful components in electronics. The op-amp can be used as an amplifier, attenuator, filter, mixer, comparator, integrator, oscillator, rectifier, peak detector, clipper, and more. So op amps are great building blocks for synth DIY.
A voltage divider is a broadly used series resistor circuit. By arranging two carefully chosen resistors in series, we can manipulate the voltage across the second resistor. To find the correct resistor values we simply use the voltage divider equation and the ten percent rule.