I like gritty distortion. By using a couple of diodes to clip a signal we can build a passive clipper distortion unit. In this example, I use bipolar LEDs to do the clipping. Even though we end up with a drop in audio level it sounds pretty decent.
A transistor is a semiconductor that can be used as a switch or an amplifier. As a basic introduction, we examine the bipolar junction transistor to switch an LED on and off using a control voltage. We also find out how to calculate the different resistor values to get the optimal working switch circuit.